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G-10-ICT-Lesson 1: Basics of ICT


  • ICT Stands for Information and Communications Technology
  • ICT refers to the concept of using technology to get information.
  • ICT involves the use of computers and other electronic devices to access information easily and quickly.
  • Examples of Information and Communications Technology include not only personal computers but also new forms of telephones, televisions, appliances, and various hand held devices.
  • ICT refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications.
  • It is similar to Information Technology (IT), but focuses primarily on communication technologies.
  • This includes the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication media.

Components of ICT System

  • ICT usually consists of the following components:
      1. Hardware: Physical components of the computer
      2. Software: Programs that perform instructions
      3. Data: Raw facts that fed to the computer
      4. People: Data are entered and used by humans
      5. The Internet: It is modern communication technology

Input, Output and System Diagrams

  • In this model there are inputs, processes, outputs, communication technologies and people

Image 1: ICT System Diagram

Garbage In, Garbage Out (GIGO)

  • Computers operate using strict logic.
  • Because of this fact  invalid input may produce invalid output, or “garbage”.
  • ICT systems cannot function properly if the inputs are inaccurate or faulty.
  • They will either not be able to process the data at all, or will output data invalid data.
  • GIGO is a useful term to remember in the examination
  • GIGO can help explain many issues such as why validation is needed and why accurate data is valuable.


  • It is important to have feedback in an ICT system.
  • This is when the output from a system feeds back to influence the input and the process repeats itself or checks for validity.

Media Integration

  • Methods used for input to and output from ICT systems vary a lot.
  • Input and output formats are the different kinds of media that are used to either gather and collect data and instructions or to display, present or issue the outputs of processing.

In old times, most media formats required dedicated devices—for example,

  • digital cameras to take digital photographs,
  • scanners to digitize images for use on a computer
  • DVD players for video playback
  • So the correct devices are needed in order to work with each media format.

In modern times, most ICT input or output devices are integrated- they are multipurpose

Media integration is a process by which two or more devices are combined to be used for multiple purpose.

For instance:

  • Combined printers, scanners and photocopiers
  • Televisions with built-in Internet connections and web browsers
  • Mobile phones that can take photos, record video, access the Internet and playback music.